Herodotus and the Doorway to History
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Sparta then sent Pausanias back to command the Greek military. In BC Pausanias was suspected of conspiring with the Persians and was recalled to Sparta; however he was acquitted and then left Sparta of his own accord, taking a trireme from the town of Hermione.
After capturing Byzantium the previous year, Pausanias was alleged to have released some of the prisoners of war who were friends and relations of the king of Persia. However, Pausanias argued that the prisoners had escaped.
He allegedly sent a letter via Gongylos of Eretria to Xerxes, son of Darius , saying that he wished to help him and bring Sparta and the rest of Greece under Persian control. In return, he wished to marry the king's daughter. After Xerxes replied agreeing to his plans, Pausanias started to adopt Persian customs and dress like a Persian aristocrat. According to Thucydides and Plutarch  many Hellenic League allies joined the Athenian side because of Pausanias' arrogance and high-handedness. The Spartans recalled him once again, and Pausanias fled to Kolonai in the Troad before returning to Sparta as he did not wish to be suspected of Persian sympathies.
THE OLYMPIC EDITION
On his arrival in Sparta, the ephors had him imprisoned, but he was later released. Bachofen, Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World, the two major and irreconcilable principles are confronted: uranic and htonic, patriarchal and matriarchal, and this is projected to all second modalities of state and social order through to the arts and culture. In the given case, the old matriarchal myths and cults turns patriarchal, through the parallel and alternating processes of de-mythologization and re-mythologization, and traces of this struggle are also found in some mythic themes, which can be understood as a very brief religious-political history, the way Robert Graves interpreted them, in his book The Greek Myths.
In contrast, in Greece, a process of demythologization which reaches its peak after Xenophanes is complete and radical. This is not followed by any process of re-mythologization, it is a consequence of a total process of de-sacralization and profanization of the culture, which results in the extinguishing of mythical and awakening of a historical consciousness, when man stops seeing self as a mythical, and begins to understand self as a historical being. This is a phenomenon that has analogies with the two moments in history: first, with a process of de-mythologization brought by early Christianity.
To the first Christian theologians, myth was the opposite of the Gospel, and Jesus was a historical figure, whose historicity the church fathers proved and defended to the unbelieving. As a contrast there is the actual process of re-mythologization of the Middle Ages, with a whole series of examples of revitalization of the ancient mythical content, often conflicting and irreconcilable, from the Graal myths and the myth of Friedrich the Second, to eschatological myths in the epoch of Crusades and various millennium myths.
Heroic impulse of man as a mythical, and historical being, was burnt out. Within the technological universe, which is only a final stage of the fall of modern man, the humane horizon is finally closing, because here man has only one power and only one freedom: power to spend and freedom to buy and sell.
Of course, the process of de-mythologization can never be completed, for the simple reason that destruction does not touch the very mythical forces. This is also true for one-dimensional universe of a technocratic utopia.
But the exhaustion of long and destructive processes of de-mythologization does not mean a return to the mythical time. This view is followed by fear and heavy premonition. Things we see or think that we can see still do not have a name, they are nameless. If we address them, we do not affect them accurately and they escape the noose of our governing.
When we say peace it could be a war. Plans of happiness turn into murderous ones, often through the night. That night, however, was not darkness. It was more of a dream, and it knew about a different way of connecting people and events of historical consciousness and its selective forces. He stands on top of the mountain that separates day from night: not only the two epochs, but also two types of epochs, the two types of light. In other words, it is the moment of the transition from one way of existence into something quite different, that we call history. This is the time of the shift of two cycles, which we can not identify with the change of historical epochs — the issue in question is the profound change in the existence of man.
The sacral in the manner of previous epochs retreats, ancient cults disappear and into their place come religions, which soon after, by themselves become historical or anti-historical, even when they trigger events and historical plots. World of History, outlines of which we can find in Homer, which were shaped by Thucydides, and which experienced its zenith somewhere at the end of XIX and at the beginning of XX century, with unclear boundaries in time and space, but with a clear consciousness of its laws and regulations, started to collapse; and the vast edifice of history becomes unstable, as a sign of penetration of the hitherto unknown foreign forces.
These forces have titanic, elementary character, first seen in technical disasters, which affected hundreds of thousands of victims and then, in the cataclysmic events of XX century, in the world wars and revolutions, the millions were killed and crippled.
Of course, history does not end there, as expected, by Marx or by Fukuyama. What is more noticeable is the acceleration of historical time, which concentrates events and reduces the distance between the key turning points of history. What we are talking about is, however, that here are not only forces operating that we call historical, and that the role of man in these events fundamentally changed: he is no longer able to operate equally with the gods, or to follow them, to stand against them or to even subjugate them, as was represented by myth.
The History of Herodotus
He man is no longer an active participant in history, guided by the passions or the will of its own, as it happens in mature historical epoch. He becomes the plaything of something unknown, involved in events that surpass him, against his will and outside of his ideas. The expression of cheerful confidence is gradually replaced by a grimace of horror. Man, who until yesterday considered himself a sovereign and master, acknowledges his weakness. The means that were trusted show as weak or in the decisive hour turn against his creator. Corruption, crime, violence and terror are rather results than the causes.
Political responses, regardless of colour and sign, do not offer solutions but rather increase disintegration. Enraged at the murder of their king, the people flew to arms, but after a while the partisans of Gyges came to terms with them, and it was agreed that if the Delphic oracle declared Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] him king of the Lydians, he should reign; if otherwise, he should yield the throne to the Heraclides. As the oracle was given in his favour he became king. The Pythoness, however, added that, in the fifth generation from Gyges, vengeance should come for the Heraclides; a prophecy of which neither the Lydians nor their princes took any account till it was fulfilled.
When Gyges was established on the throne, he sent no small present to Delphi, as his many silver offerings at the Delphic shrine testify.
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Besides this silver he gave a vast number of vessels of gold, among which the most worthy of mention are the goblets, six in number, and weighing altogether thirty talents, which stand in the Corinthian treasury, dedicated by him. I call it the Corinthian treasury, though in strictness of speech it is the treasury not of the whole Corinthian people, but of Cypselus, son of Eetion.
Excepting Midas, son of Gordias, king of Phrygia, Gyges was the first of the barbarians whom we know to have sent offerings to Delphi. Midas dedicated the royal throne whereon he was accustomed to sit and administer justice, an object well worth looking at. It lies in the same place as the goblets presented by Gyges. The Delphians call the whole of the Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] silver and the gold which Gyges dedicated, after the name of the donor, Gygian. As soon as Gyges was king he made an inroad on Miletus and Smyrna, and took the city of Colophon.
Afterwards, however, though he reigned eight and thirty years, he did not perform a single noble exploit.
I shall therefore make no further mention of him, but pass on to his son and successor in the kingdom, Ardys. In his reign the Cimmerians, driven from their homes by the nomades of Scythia, entered Asia and captured Sardis, all but the citadel.grupoavigase.com/includes/429/1978-quiero-chat-malaga.php
He reigned forty-nine years, and was succeeded by his son, Sadyattes, who reigned twelve years. At his death his son Alyattes mounted the throne. From this last contest he did not come off as he could have wished, but met with a sore defeat; still, however, in the course of his reign, he performed other actions very worthy of note, of which I will now proceed to give an account.
Inheriting from his father a war with the Milesians, he pressed the siege against the city by attacking it in the following manner. When the harvest was ripe on the ground he marched Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] his army into Milesia to the sound of pipes and harps, and flutes masculine and feminine. The buildings that were scattered over the country he neither pulled down nor burnt, nor did he even tear away the doors, but left them standing as they were. He cut down, however, and utterly destroyed all the trees and all the corn throughout the land, and then returned to his own dominions.
It was idle for his army to sit down before the place, as the Milesians were masters of the sea. The reason that he did not demolish their buildings was, that the inhabitants might be tempted to use them as homesteads from which to go forth to sow and till their lands; and so each time that he invaded the country he might find something to plunder.
During six of these eleven years, Sadyattes, the son of Ardys, who first lighted the flames of this war, was king of Lydia, and made the incursions. Only the five following years belong to the reign of Alyattes, son of Sadyattes, who as I said before , inheriting the war from his father, applied himself to it unremittingly.
It was in the twelfth year of the war that the following mischance occurred from the firing of the harvest-fields. Scarcely had the corn been set alight by the soldiers when a violent wind carried the flames against the temple of Minerva Assesia, which caught fire and was burnt to the ground.